Strategi Indonesia Mewujudkan ASEAN Outlook on Indo-Pacific (AOIP) Untuk Menciptakan Stabilitas di Kawasan Indo-Pasifik

Langgeng Gilang Pangestu, Rizky Hikmawan, Laode Muhammad Fathun

Abstract


Tujuan dari penulisan ini untuk melihat strategi Indonesia dalam mewujudkan AOIP dalam rangka menciptakan stabilitas di kawasan Indo-Pasifik yang mendapatkan dampak akibat dari pergeseran geostrategis. Dewasa ini terbentuklah sebuah kawasan baru yakni Indo-Pasifik yang didasari dari beragam potensi yang didalamnya. Lingkungan tersebut menciptakan bertabrakannya kepentingan berbagai negara. Rivalitas antara China dan Amerika Serikat tidak bisa dihindari, dampaknya yakni kepada stabilitas kawasan. Indonesia yang berada tepat di jantung Indo-Pasifik dihadapi berbagai ancaman, kepentingan nasional, stabilitas kawasan, dan sentralitas ASEAN. Tulisan ini menggunakan konsep kepentingan nasional, lingkungan strategis, Security Community, dan diplomasi dengan pendekatan penelitian kualitatif deskriptif (studi pustaka dan wawancara) yang mendeskripsikan permasalahan penelitian secara empiris. Hasil penelitian menjelaskan proses dari pembuatan ASEAN Outlook on Indo-Pacific (AOIP) hingga disetujui oleh ASEAN.

Keywords


ASEAN; Diplomasi; Indonesia; Indo-Pasifik

Full Text:

PDF

References


Acharya, A. (2001). Constructing a Security Community in Southeast Asia. London: Routledge.

Adler, E., & Barnett, M. (1998). Security Communities. Cambridge University Press.

Aksoy, M. (2018). Redefining Diplomacy in The 21st Century & Examining The Characteristics of an Ideal Diplomat. Manas Journal of Social Studies .

Al Jazeera. (2016). Beijing's South China Sea claims scrutinised at summit. Diakses pada October 14, 2017, dari Al Jazeera News and Agency: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/09/south-china-sea-row-overshadows-asean-summit-160907051502873.html

Albert, E. (2016). Competition in the Indian Ocean. Diakses pada 6 Mei 2020, dari Council on Foreign Relations: https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/competition-indian-ocean

Anam, S., & Ristiyani. (2018). Kebijakan Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) Tiongkok pada Masa Pemerintahan Xi Jinping.

Australian Government. (2017). 2017 Foreign Policy White Paper . Australia: Australian Government.

Bender, J. (2015). China wants to build giant floating islands in the South China Sea. Diakses pada 18 Desember 2017 dari Business Insider: http://www.businessinsider.com/china-to-build-giant-floating-islands-2015-8/?IR=T

Center for Strategic and International Studies. (2016). Tensions in the South China Sea explained in 18 maps. Diakses pada 30 September 2017, dari Business Insider: http://www.businessinsider.com/tensions-in-the-south-china-sea-explained-in-18-maps-2015-1/?IR=T/#1a-political-map-1

Cotter, C. H., Bardach, J. E., & Morgan, J. R. (2019). Pacific Ocean. Diakses pada 4 April 4 2020 dari Encyclopedia Britannica: https://www.britannica.com/place/Pacific-Ocean

Cronin, P. M. (2013). The Strategic Significance of the South China Sea. Managing Tensions in the South China Sea. Center for Strategic & International Studies.

Cruz de Castro, R. (2017a). 21st Century Japan-Philippines Strategic Partnership: Constraining China's Expansion in the South China Sea. Asian Affairs: An American Review , 44 (2), 31-51.

Cruz De Castro, R. (2015). President Aquino’s Visit to Tokyo Boosts Philippine-Japan Partnership in Maritime Security. Diakses pada 25 Januari 2018 dari Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative: https://amti.csis.org/president-aquinos-visit-to-tokyo-boosts-philippine-japan-partnership-in-maritime-security/

Cruz de Castro, R. (2016b). President Duterte Maintains Philippine-Japanese Partnershp as He "Pivots" to China. Diakses pada 25 Januari 2018 dari Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative: https://amti.csis.org/president-duterte-maintains-philippine-japanese-partnership-pivots-china/

Cruz de Castro, R. (2016a). The Duterte Administration’s Foreign Policy: Unravelling the Aquino Administration’s Balancing Agenda on an Emergent China. Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs .

Department of National Defense Philippines. (2015). Quest for Peace. Philippine Defense Newsletter , 5 (1).

Deutsch, K. W. (1957). Political Community and the North American Area. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Dingli, S., Economy, E., Haass, R., Kurlantzick, J., Smith, S. A., & Tay, S. (2016). China's Maritime Dispute. Diakses pada January 2, 2018, dari Council on Foreign Relations: https://www.cfr.org/interactives/chinas-maritime-disputes#!/

Dominguez, G., & Mazumdaru, S. (2015). Are South China Sea tensions triggering an arm race? Diakses pada 4 Oktober 2017 dari Deutsche Welle: http://www.dw.com/en/are-south-china-sea-tensions-triggering-an-arms-race/a-18927467

Drifte, R. (2016). Japan's Policy towards the South China Sea - Applying "Proactive Peace Diplomacy"? Frankfurt am Main: Peace Research Institute Frankfurt.

Dugis, V. M. (2015). Memahami Peningkatan Kehadiran China di Pasifik Selatan Perspektif Realisme Stratejik.

Fathun, L. M. (2019). Geostrategi Kebijakan Luar Negeri Indonesia dalam Produktivitas Ekspor Ikan. Unpar .

Frank, L. (2016). The Czech Republic Security Environment. 7.

Fung Business Intelligence Centre. (2015). The Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road.

Future Directions International. (2012). Indian Ocean: A Sea of Uncertainty. In L. G. Luke, & C. O’Loughlin, Critical Issues in the Indian Ocean Region to 2020. West Perth: Future Directions International.

Gilsinan, K. (2015). Cliché of the Moment: ‘China’s Increasing Assertiveness’. Diakses pada 14 Oktober 2017 dari The Atlantic: https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2015/09/south-china-sea-assertiveness/407203/

Glaser, B. S. (2014). China’s Grand Strategy in Asia. Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) .

Guillot, W. M. (2003). Strategic Leadership: Defining the Challenge . Air and Space Power Journal - Winter 2003 , 68.

Habib, M. (2019). Strategi Indonesia Mewujudkan AOIP untuk Menciptakan Stabilitas Kawasan Indo-Pasifik. Wawancara.

Hanada, R. (2018). The Role of U.S.-Japan-Australia-India Cooperation, or the “Quad" in FOIP: A Policy Coordination Mechanism for a Rules-Based Order. CSIS .

Herindrasti, V. S. (2019). FENOMENA INDO-PASIFIK DAN DIPLOMASI INDONESIA. Jurnal Asia Pacific Studies .

Hornung, J. W. (2015). Gauging Japan's 'Proactive Contributions to Peace'. Diakses pada 25 Januari 2018 dari The Diplomat: https://thediplomat.com/2015/10/gauging-japans-proactive-contributions-to-peace/

IHS. (2016). Growing Tensions Around South China Sea to Drive Defence Spending in APAC. Diakses pada 3 Oktober 2017 dari IHS Markit: http://news.ihsmarkit.com/press-release/aerospace-defense-security/growing-tensions-around-south-china-sea-drive-defence-spend

INKINDO DKI Jakarta. (2016). Pembangunan Indonesia Sebagai Poros Maritim Dunia. In I. D. Jakarta, Indonesia sebagai Poros Maritim Dunia. DKI Jakarta: INKINDO DKI Jakarta.

Iriawan, S. (2018). Diskursus Indo-Pasifik: Hegemoni Amerika, Persaingan Strategis, Hingga Transformasi Geopolitik Kawasan. Mandala , 284.

Iwamoto, K. (2020). 7 of 10 ASEAN members favor China over US: survey. Diakses pada 1 Juni 2020 dari Nikkei Asian Review: https://asia.nikkei.com/Politics/International-relations/7-of-10-ASEAN-members-favor-China-over-US-survey

JICA. (2013). Signing of Japanese ODA Loan Agreement with the Republic of the Philippines. Diakses pada 25 Januari 2018 dari JICA: https://www.jica.go.jp/english/news/press/2013/131216_01.html

JICA. (2016). Signing of Japanese ODA Loan Agreement with the Republic of the Philippines: Further strengthening the maritime safety capability of the Philippine Coast Guard. Diakses pada 25 Januari 2018, dari JICA: https://www.jica.go.jp/english/news/press/2016/161026_01.html

Kelly, T., & Kubo, N. (2017). Japan said to offer chopper parts to Philippines as counter to China. Diakses pada 25 Januari 2018 dari Japan Times: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2017/08/11/national/politics-diplomacy/japan-said-offer-chopper-parts-philippines-counter-china/#.Wmy4cKiWbIV

Kementerian Luar Negeri. (2019). Laporan Kinerja (LKj) Kementerian Luar Negeri 2018. Jakarta: Kementerian Luar Negeri.

Kementerian Luar Negeri Republik Indonesia. (2011). Pidato Pernyataan Tahunan Menteri Luar Negeri Republik Indonesia, Dr. R.M. Marty M. Natalegawa. Jakarta: Kementerian Luar Negeri Republik Indonesia.

Khurana, G. S. (2017). The ‘Indo-Pacific’ Concept: Retrospect and Prospect. National Maritime Foundation.

Kuo, M. A. (2018). The Origin of ‘Indo-Pacific’ as Geopolitical Construct: Insight dari Gurpreet Khurana. Diakses pada 27 Januari 2020, dari The Diplomat: https://thediplomat.com/2018/01/the-origin-of-indo-pacific-as-geopolitical-construct/

Lee, J. (2018). Trends in Southeast Asia: THE “FREE AND OPEN INDO-PACIFIC” AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ASEAN. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing.

Medcalf, R. (2015). Reimagining Asia: Dari Asia-Pacific to Indo-Pacific. Diakses pada 30 Maret 2020 dari The ASEAN Forum: http://www.theasanforum.org/reimagining-asia-dari-asia-pacific-to-indo-pacific/

Michel, D., & Sticklor, R. (2012). Indian Ocean Rising:Maritime and Security Policy Challenges. In Indian Ocean Rising:Maritime and Security Policy Challenges. Washington DC: Stimson.

Mière, C. L. (2014). Maritime Diplomacy in the 21st Century. New York: Routledge.

Ministry of Defense of Japan. (2017a). A Strategic analysis of the South China Sea territorial issues. Diakses pada 19 Desember 2017 dari Japanese

Ministry of Defense: http://www.mod.go.jp/msdf/navcol/SSG/topics-column/images/t-049/049-02.pdf

Ministry of Defense of Japan. (2017b). Defence White Paper 2017. Diakses pada 6 Desember 2017 dari Ministry of Defense: http://www.mod.go.jp/e/publ/w_paper/2017.html

Ministry of Defense of Japan. (2015a). Joint Press Release. Diakses pada 25 Januari 2018 dari Ministry of Defense of Japan: http://www.mod.go.jp/j/press/youjin/2015/01/29a_jpr_e.pdf

Ministry of Defense of Japan. (2015b). Memorandum on Defense Cooperation And Exchanges Between The Mod of Japan and The DnD of The Republic of The Philippines. Diakses pada 25 Januari 2018 dari Ministry of Defense of Japan: http://www.mod.go.jp/j/press/youjin/2015/01/29a_memo_e.pdf

Ministry of Defense of Japan. (2015c). Press Conference by the Defense Minister Nakatani (08:45-09:02 A.M. May 12, 2015). Diakses pada 25 January 2018, dari Ministry of Defense of Japan: http://www.mod.go.jp/e/press/conference/2015/05/12.html

Ministry of Defense of Japan. (2012). STATEMENT OF INTENT ON DEFENSE COOPERATION AND EXCHANGES BETWEEN DND OF PHILIPPINES AND MOD OF JAPAN. Diakses pada 25 Januari 2018 dari Ministry of Defense of Japan: http://www.mod.go.jp/j/press/youjin/2012/07/02_st_e.pdf

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. (2015). Japan-Philippines Joint Declaration: A Strengthened Strategic Partnership for Advancing the Shared Principles and Goals of Peace, Security, and Growth in the Region and Beyond. Diakses pada 20 Januari 2018 dari Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan: http://www.mofa.go.jp/s_sa/sea2/ph/page4e_000280.html

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. (2016a). Japan-Philippines Joint Statement. Diakses pada 24 Januari 2018 dari Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan: http://www.mofa.go.jp/files/000198399.pdf

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. (2013). Japan-Philippines Summit Meeting. Diakses pada 11 November 2017 dari Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan: http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/page6e_000121.html

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. (2016b). Japan-Philippines Summit Meeting. Diakses pada 25 Januari 2018 dari Minsitry of Foreign Affairs of Japan: http://www.mofa.go.jp/s_sa/sea2/ph/page3e_000568.html

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. (2017). Priority Policy Development Cooperation FY2017. Diakses pada 25 January 2018 dari Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan: http://www.mofa.go.jp/files/000259285.pdf

Mollman, S. (2016). The line on a 70-year-old map that threatens to set off a war in East Asia. Diakses pada 2 October 2017 dari Quartz: https://qz.com/705223/where-exactly-did-chinas-nine-dash-line-in-the-south-china-sea-come-dari/

Montratama, I. (2016). Rekonstruksi Politik Luar Negeri Indonesia di Tengah Dinamika Lingkungan Strategis Indo-Pasifik Abad Ke-21. Journal of International Studies , 37.

Morgenthau, J. (1948). Politic among nation: The Struggle for power and peace. New York: Alfred A.Knopf.

Natalegawa, R. M. (2013). An Indonesian Perspective on the Indo-Pacific. Wahington DC: CSIS.

National Economic and Development Authority Philippines. (2017a). ODA Portfolio Report Review 2016. Diakses pada 25 Januari 2018 dari National Economic and Development Authority Philippines: http://www.neda.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/ODA-2016-As-of-August-22-2017.pdf

Nirmala, M. (2016). Japan's New ASEAN Diplomacy: Strategic Goals, Patterns, and Potential Limitations under the Abe Administration. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity , 6 (12), 952-957.

Nuechterlein, D. E. (1976). National Interests and Foreign Policy: A Conceptual Framework for Analysis and Decision-Making. British Journal of International Studies .

Nugrahani, F. (2014). Metode Penelitian Kualitatif dalam Bidang. Solo: Cakra Books.

Parameswaran, P. (2017). What's Next for Japan-Philippines Defense Relations Under Duterte? Diakses pada 25 Januari 2018 dari The Diplomat: https://thediplomat.com/2017/02/whats-next-for-japan-philippines-defense-relations-under-duterte/

Permanent Court of Arbitration. (2016). Award in the South China Sea Arbitration (The Republic of the Philippines v. the People's Republic of China). Diakses pada 15 Januari 2018 dari Permanent Court of Arbitration: https://pca-cpa.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/175/2016/07/PH-CN-20160712-Award.pdf

Portal Informasi Indonesia. (2019). Indonesia Poros Maritim Dunia. Diakses pada 30 Mei 2020 dari Portal Informasi Indonesia: https://www.indonesia.go.id/narasi/indonesia-dalam-angka/ekonomi/indonesia-poros-maritim-dunia

Purnama, A. C. (2017). GAGASAN INDONESIA MENGENAI INDO-PACIFIC TREATY: PROSPEK DAN MASALAH. Jurnal Pertahanan dan Bela Negara .

Putra, I. N., & Hakim, A. (2016). ANALISA PELUANG DAN ANCAMAN KEAMANAN MARITIM INDONESIA SEBAGAI DAMPAK PERKEMBANGAN LINGKUNGAN STRATEGIS. ASROJURNAL-STTALVol. 6 .

Rahmawati. (2019). Strategi Indonesia Mewujudkan AOIP untuk Menciptakan Stabilitas Kawasan Indo-Pasifik. Wawancara.

Roza, R. (2019). Pandangan ASEAN Terhadap Indo-Pasifik. Pusat Penelitain DPR , 8.

Saha, P. (2018). The Quad in the Indo-Pacific: Why ASEAN Remains Cautious. Observer Research Foundation (ORF) , 7.

Shoji, T. (2014). The South China Sea: A View dari Japan. Diakses pada November 8, 2017, dari National Institute for Defense Studies - Ministry of Defense: http://www.nids.mod.go.jp/english/publication/kiyo/pdf/2014/bulletin_e2014_7.pdf

Silver, L. (2017). How people in Asia-Pacific view China. Diakses pada 17 Januari 2018 dari Pew Research Center: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/10/16/how-people-in-asia-pacific-view-china/

Simon, S. (2015). US-Southeast Asia Relations: Courting Partners. Comparative Connections , 16 (2), 53-64.

Sokolsky, R., Rabasa, A., & Neu, C. R. (2001). The Role of Southeast Asia in U.S. Strategy Toward China. Santa Monica: Rand Corporation.

Sondermann, F. A. (1960). The concept of national interest. USA: Prentince-Hall.Inc.

Statement by H.E.Dr.R.M. Marty M. Natalegawa Minister for Foreign Affairs

Republic of Indonesia. (2011). New York: The General Debate of The 66th Session of The United Nations General Assembly.

Sutiono, Mahroza, J., & Yusgiantoro, P. (2019). Strategi Diplomasi Pertahanan Indonesia Dalam Menjaga Stabilitas Kawasan Asean Melalui Konsep Dynamic Equilibrium. Jurnal Diplomasi Pertahanan.

Tertia, J., & Perwita, A. A. (2018). Maritime Security In Indo-Pacific: Issues, Challenges And Prospects. Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional.

The Department of Defense USA. (2019). Indo-Pacific Strategy Report. The Department of Defense USA.

The Global Firepower. (2017). 2017 Military Strength Ranking. Diakses pada 2 Januari 2018 dari The Global Firepower: https://www.globalfirepower.com/countries-listing.asp

Trajano, J. C. (2013). Japan-Philippines Strategic Partnership: Converging Threat Perception. Diakses pada 11 November 2017 dari RSIS Nanyang Technological University: https://www.rsis.edu.sg/rsis-publication/rsis/2034-japan-philippines-strategic-pa/#.WgcwgmiCzIU

Turcsányi, R. Q. (2017). Chinese Assertiveness in the South China Sea. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Verlaan, P. A., Morgan, J. R., & Kanayev, V. F. (2020). Indian Ocean. Diakses pada 4 April 2020 dari Encyclopædia Britannica: https://www.britannica.com/place/Indian-Ocean

Vice, M. (2017). In global popularity contest, U.S. and China – not Russia – vie for first. Diakses pada 20 Februari 2018 dari Pew Research Center: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/08/23/in-global-popularity-contest-u-s-and-china-not-russia-vie-for-first/

Walker, R. A. (2004). Multilateral Conference: Purposeful International Negotiation. New York: Palgrave Macmilan.

White House. (2017). National Security Strategy of the United States of America (NSS). Washington DC: White House.

Yakti, P. D., & Susanto, J. (2011). Poros Maritim Dunia Sebagai Pendekatan Strateg iMaritim Indonesia: Antara Perubahan atau Kesinambungan Strategi? Global & Strategis .

Yani, Y. M. (2010). Perspektif-Perspektif Politik Luar Negeri: Teori dan Praksis. Diakses pada 4 June 2020 dari http://pustaka.unpad.ac.id/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/perspektif_perspektif_politik_luar_negeri.pdf

Zhou, W. (2015). China's growing assertiveness in the South China Sea. Diakses pada 28 Oktober 28 2017 dari Elcano Royal Institute: http://www.realinstitutoelcano.org/wps/portal/rielcano_en/contenido?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/elcano/elcano_in/zonas_in/asia-pacific/ari60-2015-chinas-growing-assertiveness-in-the-south-china-sea




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26418%2Fproyeksi.v26i1.2619

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 2834 times
PDF - 0 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

View My Stats 

 

INDEXING